Today, the development and working of the COVID 19 vaccine is the most important and topical news. All COVID 19 vaccines in development, aim to produce immunity against the Sars-Cov-2 virus. Usually, the characteristic spike protein found on the surface of the virus by stimulating an immune response to an antigen. Some traditional vaccines achieve this by altering the virus to weaken or disable it. So that when introduced into the body, an immune response can be generated against the antigen.
When the immune system comes into contact with the virus, it weakens its defences, such as antibodies. The cells attack the virus or infected cells in the specialized process. The memory cells take note of the specific antigen and trigger the immune system, to produce cells and antibodies that will quickly target those proteins. So, the next time that person is exposed to the same virus, the immune system will be ready to fight it
PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINES
Instead of using the whole virus, another way to activate immunity involves using only fragments of it. Such as spike proteins, these subunit vaccines have the advantage of being relatively easy and cheap to produce. And are incapable of causing disease because these fragments cannot infect the host. However, they are less likely to be recognized by immune cells intended to attack infected cells. This means that they can trigger a weaker immune response due to this subunit. Vaccines often include chemical agents called adjuvants, that are designed to stimulate a stronger immune response, and booster injections may also be required.
Not all vaccines are designed to introduce antigens into the body. Viral Vector Vaccines and mRNA vaccines work by using cells in a patient’s body to produce the antigens themselves. Here the goal is to get a short fragment of genetic code, taken from the target pathogen. in this case, the Sars-Cov-2 virus that causes Covid-19, by hijacking cellular mechanisms. These types of vaccines mimic the way viruses normally reproduce during natural infection, but in Instead of creating copies of the virus, cells only produce large amounts of antigen. Which then generally trigger a strong immune response.
VIRAL VECTOR VACCINE
Viral vector vaccines accomplish this by inserting the antigen’s genetic code into a harmless virus. This virus effectively acts as a delivery system to get the code into cells without causing disease. Vector-based vaccines can be complex to develop but can deliver strong immune responses.
NUCLEIC ACID VACCINE
Nucleic acid vaccines like DNA and mRNA vaccines also involve inserting genetic code into cells. To produce antigens, instead of using viruses to deliver the code. A more direct approach is used that involves inserting the code directly into cells by forcing it into cells using a gene gun. Or by attaching it to a molecule. These vaccines may be quick and cheap to develop, but they are a relatively new technology. Hundreds of Covid 19 vaccines are now in development. A mix of different procedures is required to eradicate this coronavirus.
Development & Working of COVID 19 Vaccine
At the end as an Indian, I would like to advice everyone to get vaccinated when and where it is available to you. Observations and precautions during vaccination.
1. Get vaccinated in a clean and well-ventilated centre that takes all the precautions against Covid-19 cross infection and maintains all protocols for the protection of Covid-19.
2. While receiving the injection, make sure the nurse is disinfecting her hand and is wearing the proper personal protective equipment or sterile gloves.
3. Wait at the centre 30 minutes after vaccination. Also make an appointment for your second dose.
4. Keep looking for late allergic reactions like hives, sudden eye swelling, a choking sensation in the throat, and so on. This will go away after taking allergy tablets as advised by your doctor. These reactions also show that your immune system is working. Hopefully, the memory cell of the second immune response will come into play if the Covid-19 virus attacks it in the future.
Conclusion: I will conclude by saying that both vaccines are safe and effective, and everyone should take them. Our doctors, scientists and all healthcare workers are working around the clock to keep us safe. We must also care for and support them. In addition, continue taking all precautions, vaccinated or not, until 70% of our population is vaccinated.
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